Wetenschap en waterpolo
J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2002 Sep;42(3):315-9.
Aziz AR, Lee HC, Teh KC.
Sport Medicine and Research Centre, Sport Medicine and Fitness Division, Singapore Sports Council, National Stadium, Singapore.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to describe the physiological characteristics of members of the Singapore national water polo team
METHODS: EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: a descriptive study on the physiological characteristics of members of a winning water polo team.
SETTING: the study was conducted at the Sports Medicine and Research Centre.
PARTICIPANTS: 13 male players (22.5+/-7.2 yrs; 178.5+/-3.9 cm and 71.0+/-8.4 kg).
MEASURES: players completed body fat measurements, a submaximal cycling test to determine aerobic fitness and all-out maximal efforts (of arm-cranking and cycling) for 10 and 30 sec duration to determine anaerobic peak power, alactic and lactic acid work capacity for the upper and lower body.
RESULTS: The physical measurements were compared with data of national players of various countries. The exercise test results were compared with available published data.
CONCLUSIONS: Compared with elite water polo players from other countries, the Singapore water polo players are smaller in stature with a lower body mass. Relative to the limited published data, they are shown to possess a high level of aerobic fitness and anaerobic power and capacity for short-term work.
Body mass changes and voluntary fluid intakes of elite level water polo players and swimmers.
J Sci Med Sport. 2002 Sep;5(3):183-93.
Cox GR, Broad EM, Riley MD, Burke LM.
Australian Institute of Sport, Belconnen.
Calculated sweat rates (measured by body mass changes) and voluntary fluid intakes were monitored in elite level water polo players and swimmers during normal exercise sessions to determine fluid requirements to maintain fluid balance, and the degree of fluid replacement of these athletes. Data were collected from training and competition sessions for male water polo players (n = 23) and training sessions only for swimmers (n = 20 females; n = 21 males). The calculated average sweat rate and fluid intake rate during training sessions for male water polo players was 287 ml/h and 142 ml/h, respectively, with a rate of 786 ml/h and 380 ml/h during matches. During training sessions for male swimmers, the calculated average sweat rate and fluid intake rate per kilometre was 138 ml/km and 155 ml/km, respectively; and for female swimmers, 107 ml/km and 95 ml/km. There was a wide individual variation in fluid intake and sweat loss of both water polo players and swimmers. Dehydration experienced by athletes in this study was less than typically reported for "land-based" athletes. Errors inherent in the technique used in this study are acknowledged and may be significant in the calculation of reported sweat losses and levels of fluid balance in aquatic athletes.