Wetenschap en waterpolo
Sports ability after Bankart procedure in professional athletes.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 1996;4(2):116-20.
Pavlik A, Csépai D, Hidas P, Bánóczy A.
National Institute for Sports Medicine, Department of Sports Surgery, Budapest, Hungary.
Recurrent anterior shoulder instability and the restoration of sports ability after surgery are common problems, especially among professional athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate, level and time of returning to sports activity activity after Bankart procedure in anterior shoulder instability in high level athletes. From 1992-1994 61 patients suffering from recurrent anterior shoulder instability were operated on open Bankart procedure, 44 out of 61 were professional athletes. There were 7 handball, 7 basketball, 6 football, 2 waterpolo and 1 baseball player and 4 wrestlers, 2 weight-lifters, 2 boxers, 3 bicyclists, 2 motorists, 2 swimmers, 2 sailors, 2 kayakers and 2 skiers. The mean duration of instability was 19.1 months (3-72) before operation. 29 patients had posttraumatic recurrent anterior dislocation and 15 patients had posttraumatic anterior subluxations. The average number of redislocations was 4.4, ranging from 2 to 11. At the follow-up examination the patients were tested clinically for instability using the special score created by Walch and Duplay and the Constant functional score. We measured the strength of the rotator cuff by Kintrex isokinetic device from the 10th postoperative week. 35 out of 44 professional athletes could be followed-up. The average follow-up period was 14.2 months, from 6 to 31. 88% of the patients were able to return to sports participation, 66% on the previous level and 22% on a lower level. 12% of the patients finished their professional sports career. The mean rehabilitation period was 5.8 months, the average period of full restoration of sports ability was 9.3 months. Similar results were documented with the Constant score and the Walch-Duplay test (88% excellent or good, 12% fair). The main reason for the inability to continue sports activity was some pain during extreme abduction and external rotation of the arm and recurrent sensations of subluxation (3 cases). Based on the results of the follow-up examinations an early diagnosis is paramount followed by timely surgical intervention to restore anatomical integrity in proven cases of shoulder instability in professional athletes. The open Bankart procedure is preferred giving excellent functional results and providing good chances for the athletes to return to their previous sports level.
Anthropometric changes in elite male water polo players: survey in 1980 and 1995.
Croat Med J. 2004 Apr;45(2):202-5.
Lozovina V, Pavicic L.
Split University of Maritime Studies, Split, Croatia.
AIM: To assess the differences in anthropometric parameters, body fat, body mass index (BMI), and body density induced by sport-specific morphological optimization (adaptation) between two generations (1980 and 1995) of male elite water polo players.
METHODS: The survey included a total of 160 elite male water polo players, all members of the top clubs in Croatia. The 1980's generation consisted of 95 players (71.9% of target population) aged between 18 and 32 years, and the 1995's generation included 65 players (50% of target population) aged between 19 and 29 years. Trained and qualified anthropometrists performed the measurements under standardized experimental conditions and in accordance with the procedures described by the International Biological Program. They measured 23 anthropometric variables reflecting basic human body characteristics described by skeletal bone lengths (total leg length, total arm length, hand length, foot length, and height), breadths (hand at proximal phalanges, foot in metatarsal area, biacromial, biiliocristal, biepycondylar femur, biepycondyar humerus, and radio-ulnar wrist breadth), girths (chest, arm, forearm, thigh, and calf girth), skinfold thickness as a measure of subcutaneous adiposity (triceps, subscapular, axillary, calf, and abdominal skinfold thickness), and mass. Additionally, estimates of body mass index (BMI), body density, and percentage of body fat were calculated from the primary measures.
RESULTS: Comparison between anthropometric measures of the two generations of water polo players revealed a positive trend in body skeletal measures and negative trend in body adiposity measures. Most noteworthy differences (d) were an increase in height (d=37.3 mm, p<or=0.001), decrease in estimated body fat (d=-1.65%, p<or=0.001) accompanied by higher body density (d=0.01, p<or=0.001), with no significant difference in body mass (d=-0.74 kg, p=0.518).
CONCLUSION: Anthropometric characteristics of elite water polo players have changed over the analyzed 15 years. Body shape changed in terms of greater height and more elongated limbs, with thinner waist and broader shoulders. Body mass remained unchanged. Muscle-to-fat mass ratio increased. The observed changes may be a consequence of population secular trend and sport morphological adaptation (optimization).