Altered plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid profile in elite female water polo and football players.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012 Feb;37(1):40-7. doi: 10.1139/h11-125.
Arsic A, Vucic V, Tepšic J, Mazic S, Djelic M, Glibetic M.
Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
The impact of chronic, intense exercise, such as in elite athletes, on phospholipids fatty acids (FA) composition has not been studied in women so far. This study aimed to investigate FA profiles in plasma and erythrocytes phospholipids in elite female water polo (N = 15) and football (N = 19) players in comparison with sedentary women. In spite of similar dietary patterns, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, plasma FA profile in the football players showed significantly higher proportions of stearic acid, oleic acid, and monounsaturated FA (MUFA), and significantly lower proportions of total and n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than in the water polo and control group. The water polo players had higher percentages of palmitoleic acid and arachidonic acid than the control subjects. Erythrocyte FA profile differed among groups. We found significantly higher proportion of oleic acid and MUFA in the football group than in the controls, and decreased stearic acid and elevated palmitic and palmitoleic acid in the water polo players than in the other 2 groups. Both groups of athletes had significantly lower percentages of n-6 dihomo-?-linolenic acid, n-6 PUFA, and total PUFA compared with the controls. The estimated activities of elongase and desaturases in erythrocytes were also altered in the athletes. Our results indicate that long-term, intense physical training significantly affects FA status of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids in women. The observed differences between the water polo and the football players suggest that the type of regular training may contribute to the altered metabolism of FA, although possible genetic differences among the 3 study groups cannot be ruled out.
General anthropometric and specific physical fitness profile of high-level junior water polo players.
J Hum Kinet. 2012 May;32:157-65. doi: 10.2478/v10078-012-0032-6.
Kondric M, Uljevic O, Gabrilo G, Kontic D, Sekulic D.
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Sport, Slovenia.
The aim of this study was to investigate the status and playing position differences in anthropometric measures and specific physical fitness in high-level junior water polo players. The sample of subjects comprised 110 water polo players (17 to 18 years of age), including one of the world's best national junior teams for 2010. The subjects were divided according to their playing positions into: Centers (N = 16), Wings (N = 28), perimeter players (Drivers; N = 25), Points (N = 19), and Goalkeepers (N = 18). The variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, arm span, triceps- and subscapular-skinfold. Specific physical fitness tests comprised: four swimming tests, namely: 25m, 100m, 400m and a specific anaerobic 4x50m test (average result achieved in four 50m sprints with a 30 sec pause), vertical body jump (JUMP; maximal vertical jump from the water starting from a water polo defensive position) and a dynamometric power achieved in front crawl swimming (DYN). ANOVA with post-hoc comparison revealed significant differences between positions for most of the anthropometrics, noting that the Centers were the heaviest and had the highest BMI and subscapular skinfold. The Points achieved the best results in most of the swimming capacities and JUMP test. No significant group differences were found for the 100m and 4x50m tests. The Goalkeepers achieved the lowest results for DYN. Given the representativeness of the sample of subjects, the results of this study allow specific insights into the physical fitness and anthropometric features of high-level junior water polo players and allow coaches to design a specific training program aimed at achieving the physical fitness results presented for each playing position.
Effects of competition level on the centre forward role of men's water polo.
J Sports Sci. 2012 May;30(9):889-97. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2012.679673.
Lupo C, Minganti C, Cortis C, Perroni F, Capranica L, Tessitore A.
Department of Human Movement and Sport Sciences, University of Rome Foro Italico, Rome, Italy.
This study aimed to compare specific technical and tactical indicators of the team and centre forward role of Euro League, and Italian Serie A1, Serie A2, and Serie B men's water polo club competitions. A notational analysis was performed on 21 water polo matches to evaluate the occurrence of technical and tactical team and centre forward indicators, highlighting differences among championships according to chi-square analyses. Differences emerged for Counterattack (P < 0.001) and Power-Play (P < 0.001) possessions, Even (P < 0.001; Euro League: 3 ± 1, Serie A1: 3 ± 2, Serie A2: 3 ± 2, Serie B: 6 ± 4) and Power-Play (P = 0.001) goals, and exclusions and penalties (P = 0.008) of the team during Even possessions. Relatively to the role analyses, effects emerged for perimeter players playing events (P = 0.049), as well as for centre forwards' goals (P = 0.007) and exclusions and penalties (P < 0.001; Euro League: 8 ± 1, Serie A1: 6 ± 2, Serie A2: 6 ± 2, Serie B: 3 ± 2) occurring at the end of Even possessions. Therefore, in Euro League, and Italian Serie A1 and Serie A2, teams perform a high occurrence of Power-Play possessions following up an exclusion, especially achieved by the centre forward during Even possessions, while, in Italian Serie B, goals were mostly scored during Even possessions, with a relevant contribution from the centre forward role.
High intensity training for faster water polo.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2012 Jun;52(3):229-36.
D'ercole C, Gobbi M, D'ercole A, Iachini F, Gobbi F.
Catalunya National Institute of Physical Education Institute, Barcelona, Spain.
AIM: The aim of this study, based on the interaction between two aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms with a parallel production of both aerobic and anaerobic ATP, was to develop a high intensity training programme and increase the aerobic contribution. We examined the applicability of a 16-week training programme with an ergospirometer treadmill and field tests on eight water polo players.
METHODS: Tests/retests of repeated exercises to 90V (90% of maximum personal speed over 100 m freestyle) and Speed Endurance Training (SET) after eight weeks were developed. A one-way blocked ANOVA with random blocks was used and each player represented a particular block with two before-after treatments with the aim of reducing error by subtracting both the variance due to the difference between the treatments and that due to the difference between the blocks.
RESULTS: A reduction (15.2%) in blood lactate was observed in response to the same absolute workload (before-after). Furthermore the anaerobic contribution to VO2max (ESCAna, Estimated Anaerobic Contribution) after eight weeks of training at 90maxV and the anaerobic contribution to VO2max (ESCAna) after speed endurance training (SET) were very significant (P<0.004) with a reduction in the anaerobic contribution of 16%. The results of the field tests show that there was a very significant reduction (P<0.001) in lactate between 90maxV and maximal aerobic power velocity (MAPv) of 24%.
CONCLUSION: With 90maxV and SET, space was gained towards those velocities, which had previously required a considerable anaerobic contribution. In this way match speed was increased.
Differences and discriminatory power of water polo game-related statistics in men in International Championships and their relationship with the phase of the competition.
J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Jun 11.
Escalante Y, Saavedra J, Tella V, Mansilla M, García-Hermoso A, A D.
1Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte, AFIDES Research Group, Universidad de Extremadura, Spain 2Facultat de Cičncies de l'Activitat Física i l'Esport, Universitat de Valencia, Spain. 3Escuela Universitaria de Magisterio, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Spain.
The aims of this study were (i) to compare water polo game-related statistics by context (winning and losing teams) and phase (preliminary, classification, and semi-final/bronze medal/gold medal), and (ii) identify characteristics that discriminate performances for each phase. The game-related statistics of the 230 men's matches played in World Championships (2007, 2009, 2011) and European Championships (2008, 2010) were analyzed. Differences between contexts (winning or losing teams) in each phase (preliminary, classification, and semi-final/bronze medal/gold medal) were determined using the chi-squared statistic, also calculating the effect sizes of the differences. A discriminant analysis was then performed following the sample-splitting method according to context (winning and losing teams) in each of the three phases. It was found that the game-related statistics differentiate the winning from the losing teams in each phase of an international championship. The differentiating variables are both offensive and defensive, including: action shots, sprints, goalkeeper-blocked shots, and goalkeeper-blocked action shots. However, the number of discriminatory variables decreases as the phase becomes more demanding and the teams become more equally matched. The discriminant analysis showed the game-related statistics to discriminate performance in all phases (preliminary, classificatory, and semi-final/bronze medal/gold medal phase) with high percentages (91%, 90%, and 73% respectively). Again the model selected both defensive and offensive variables.
Sonographic Evaluation of the Acromiohumeral Distance in Elite and Recreational Female Overhead Athletes.
Clin J Sport Med. 2012 Jun 12.
Maenhout A, van Cingel R, De Mey K, Van Herzeele M, Dhooge F, Cools A.
*Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium †Sports Medical Centre Papendal, Arnhem, Netherlands ‡HAN University of Applied Sciences, Institute Health Studies, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
OBJECTIVE:: To compare the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) and the change of this distance during abduction between the dominant and nondominant shoulders of female overhead athletes and to compare AHD between elite and recreational female athletes.
DESIGN:: Case-control study.
SETTING:: Laboratory, institutional.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES:: "Side" (dominant and nondominant), "group" (elite and recreational athletes), and "degree of abduction" (0, 45, and 60 degrees).
PARTICIPANTS:: Sixty-two female overhead athletes participated in this study: 29 elite handball players and 33 recreational overhead athletes of different sports disciplines (volleyball, water polo, squash, and badminton).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Acromiohumeral distance was measured at 3 positions of abduction using ultrasound: at 0, 45, and 60 degrees of abduction. RESULTS:: Acromiohumeral distance measurements showed good test-retest reliability ( intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.88 and 0.92). In all overhead athletes, the AHD was significantly larger on the dominant side compared with the nondominant side, at all positions of abduction (mean difference = 0.94 ± 0.18 mm). Significant reduction of the AHD during abduction occurred relative to the initial size at 0 degree of abduction, at both sides. When comparing elite and recreational athletes, the AHD was significantly larger in elite athletes (mean difference = 0.92 ± 0.47 mm). Moreover, significantly less reduction occurs during the first degrees of abduction (0-45 degrees) in elite athletes (9.37% ± 2.17% reduction) compared with the recreational athletes (17.68% ± 2.03% reduction).
CONCLUSIONS:: The AHD is larger on the dominant side compared with the nondominant side and in elite female athletes compared with recreational female athletes. Moreover, less reduction of the AHD occurs in the elite athlete group during the first 45 degrees of abduction.
Kinematic analysis of three water polo front crawl styles.
J Sports Sci. 2012;30(7):715-23. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2012.669043.
De Jesus K, Figueiredo P, De Jesus K, Pereira F, Vilas-Boas JP, Machado L, Fernandes RJ.
Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
During water polo matches, players use different front crawl styles. The purpose of this study was to conduct a kinematic analysis of three water polo front crawl styles: front crawl with head under water, front crawl with head above water, and front crawl when leading the ball. Ten proficient water polo players performed 3 × 15 m sprints in each front crawl style, which were recorded three-dimensionally by two surface and four underwater cameras. The results showed no differences in performance and several kinematic characteristics among the water polo front crawl styles. However, front crawl when leading the ball showed shorter stroke length and greater stroke frequency. Front crawl with head underwater presented greater maximal finger depth and elbow angle at mid-stroke position. Front crawl with head above water and when leading the ball showed greater trunk obliquity and maximal depth of right and left foot, and shorter kick stroke frequency. The findings suggest that proficient players learn to master front crawl with head above water to achieve top velocity. Despite the common use of the front crawl with head underwater as the basis for water polo fast displacement, coaches should emphasize the use of the specific water polo styles to attain high performance.
Relationship between characteristics of water polo players and efficacy indices.
J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Jul;26(7):1852-7. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318237ea4f.
Alcaraz PE, Abraldes JA, Ferragut C, Vila H, Rodríguez N, Argudo FM.
Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, San Antonio Catholic University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
The aim of this study was to define and examine the relationships between the anthropometrical characteristics, maximum isometric grip strength, and competition throwing velocities and efficacy indices in high-level water polo player. Eleven elite trained male water polo players participated in this study. During preseason training, the following measures were taken: standard anthropometry (height, body mass, arm spam, skinfolds, body girths, and skeletal breadths) and grip strength. During official European Competitions (n = 7), efficacy indices (offensives: shot definition, resolution, precision, blocked and defensives: shot resolution when defending and shots stopped when defending), average and maximum throwing velocities from all the participants by zones and in some offensive tactical phases (even, counterattacks and power play) were also determined. Throwing velocities were different (p = 0.05) between some of the offensive tactical phases (even = 17.9 ± 2.4 vs. power play = 16.7 ± 2.6 m•s(-1)). In addition, significant correlations were found between competitive throwing velocities and different offensive efficacy indices.
We concluded that there were significant correlations between conditioning and performance variables with anthropometrical characteristics and offensive tactical indices (blocked shots received and shot precision). Coaches should pay attention to these indices for the development of performance throughout the season.
The volume of goal shooting during training can predict shoulder soreness in elite female water polo players.
J Sci Med Sport. 2012 Jul 17.
Wheeler K, Kefford T, Mosler A, Lebedew A, Lyons K.
National Institute of Sport Studies, University of Canberra, ACT, Australia.
OBJECTIVES: Examine the association between measures shoulder soreness and the goal shooting volume in high performance women's water polo.
DESIGN: Seven national level female water polo players were monitored across two training camps (squad selection and team game-based).
METHODS: Performance analysis coded all shots for each athlete during the training camps and the shoulder soreness information was gathered through an athlete self-rating survey. Residual maximal likelihood analysis was used to predict shoulder soreness.
RESULTS: It was shown that 74% (p=0.013) of shoulder soreness was explained by the volume of goal shooting during training (R(2) 0.743) with greater soreness associated with less rest time between shots (p=0.032). Greater levels of shoulder soreness were reported in the squad selection training camp compared to team game-based camp (p=0.002) with 29% of this shoulder soreness prediction based on individual athlete differences.
CONCLUSIONS: Shoulder soreness increased with a greater number of shots in conjunction with less rest. Monitoring athletes on an individual basis seemed the most appropriate method of identifying increased shoulder soreness.
Physiological adaptation of anthropometric and cardiovascular parameters on physical activity of elite athletes.
Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2012 Jul-Aug;140(7-8):431-5.
Djelic M, Šaranovic S, Zlatkovic J, Ilic V, Radovanovic D, Nešic D, Džodan M, Mazic S.
INTRODUCTION: Specific morphological and functional characteristics of athletes have a significant role in determining athletes' sports results and can be also used to assess the athlete's individual potential.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare anthropometric characteristics and cardiovascular parameters in trained subjects to those of untrained subjects.
METHODS: A total number of 25 trained (17.30 +/- 0.83 years) and 21 (18.52 +/- 1.52 years) untrained male subjects participated in this study. Body weight and height were measured and these values were used to compute body mass index (BMI).The bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method was used to estimate body fat percentage (%BF). Cardiovascular parameters were monitored in rest (rest heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) during ergospirometric testing (maximal oxygen consumption, maximal heart rate) and in recovery (heart rate in the first and third minute of recovery).
RESULTS: Body mass, height and BMI (p<0.01) were significantly higher, although BF% was lower in trained group when compared to untrained, but the difference was not statistically significant. Heart rate in rest and recovery were significantly lower (p<0.05) in trained group when compared to untrained, although maximal oxygen consumption and maximal heart rate were significantly higher in trained group (p<0.01, p<0.05, respectevely).
CONCLUSION: Our results show that in trained subjects, water polo players, regular intense physical activity lead to adaptive changes of anthropometric parameters and adaptive changes on the cardiovascular system.
Dental injuries in water polo, a survey of players in Switzerland.
Dent Traumatol. 2012 Aug;28(4):287-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.2011.01083.x
Hersberger S, Krastl G, Kühl S, Filippi A.
Departement of Oral Surgery, Oral Radiology and Oral Medicine and Centre of Dental Traumatology, University of Basel, Switzerland.
Water polo is a sporting activity which has a medium risk of causing dental trauma. Owing to the high speed, close body contact, and the combination of throwing and swimming that is inherent to the sport, the general injury potential is high. Using a standardized questionnaire for a total of 415 water polo players from Switzerland, this study examines the frequency of dental and facial injuries in water polo, athletes' habits regarding the wearing of mouthguards, and the general level of knowledge about emergency procedures following dental trauma. The participating players came from 6 divisions: Swiss national leagues A and B, first and second leagues, as well as the women's, and junior's league. The data were evaluated according to division and gender. Of the 415 interviewees, 185 (44.6%) had witnessed a dental injury in water polo. Eighty-seven (21.0%) players reported having suffered a tooth injury when playing water polo. Tooth fracture was the most stated dental injury [86 (16.4%)]. A similar number of tooth injuries were experienced by both male [355 (21.1%)] and female [60 (20.0%)] players. The interviewees over the age of 50 showed a higher incidence of tooth injuries than younger players (>50 years = 41.7%). Slightly more than half of the interviewed players [228 (54.9%)] were aware of the possibility of replanting avulsed teeth. As few as 43 (10.4%) players were familiar with tooth rescue boxes. Only 32 (7.7%) water polo players wore a mouthguard; the most common reason for not wearing a mouthguard was that it was seen to be unnecessary [169 (40.7%)]. This survey highlights the potential for improvement in the level of knowledge about dental injury prevention in water polo. In addition to information and guidelines from the relevant sports' associations, and coaches, dentists could also play a role in the provision of this education.
Water related otitis externa.
Coll Antropol. 2012 Sep;36(3):893-7.
Kujundzic M, Braut T, Manestar D, Cattunar A, Malvic G, Vukelic J, Puselja Z, Linsak DT.
University of Rijeka, Rijeka University Hospital Center, Clinic of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Rijeka, Croatia.
Water influences skin inflammation of the external auditory canal. The common term for this illness is "swimmer's ear". Contributory factors are length of exposure to water, type of water and water pollution. The aim of the study was to compare risks for contracting the disease between patients with different exposure to swimming pool water. A retrospective case-control analysis of patients at the ENT-clinic was performed. Swimmers and water polo players swam in a swimming pool chlorinated by an automatic swimming pool cleaning system. Water sport players had a higher risk for ear skin inflammation than football players. Senior football players compared with players younger than 13 were not at increased risk. Swimmers and water polo players older than 13 were at higher risk. Swimmers were at higher risk than football players as well as water polo players. There was no difference for the risk of otitis externa between swimmers and water polo players. Swimmers and water polo players compared with other patients of the ENT-clinic were at higher risk than football players. Frequent and longer exposure to water has been proved to increase the risk of external auditory canal inflammation.
Mechanical loading with or without weight-bearing activity: influence on bone strength index in elite female adolescent athletes engaged in water polo, gymnastics, and track-and-field.
J Bone Miner Metab. 2012 Sep;30(5):580-7. doi: 10.1007/s00774-012-0360-6.
Greene DA, Naughton GA, Bradshaw E, Moresi M, Ducher G.
Centre of Physical Activity Across the Lifespan (CoPAAL), School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, Locked Bag 2002, Strathfield, NSW, 2763, Australia.
Bone health is considered not to benefit from water-based sports because of their weight-supported nature, but available evidence primarily relies on DXA technology. Our purpose was to investigate musculoskeletal health in the upper and lower body in well-trained adolescent female athletes using pQCT and compare these athletes with less-active, age- and sex-matched peers. Bone mineral content, volumetric cortical and trabecular BMD, total and cortical area, and bone strength index were assessed at the distal and proximal tibia and radius in four groups of adolescent females (mean age, 14.9 years) including water polo players (n = 30), gymnasts (n = 25), track-and-field athletes (n = 34), and nonactive controls (n = 28). Water polo players did not show any benefit in bone strength index or muscle size in the lower leg when compared with controls. In contrast, gymnasts showed 60.1 % and 53.4 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, than nonactive females (p < 0.05). Similarly, track-and-field athletes displayed 33.9 % and 14.7 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, compared with controls (p < 0.05). In the upper body, water polo players had 31.9 % greater bone strength index at the distal radius, but not the radial shaft, and 15.2 % larger forearm muscle cross-sectional area than controls (p < 0.05). The greatest musculoskeletal benefits in the upper body were found in gymnasts. In conclusion, despite training at an elite level, female water polo players did not show any benefits in musculoskeletal health in the lower leg and only limited benefits in the upper body when compared with nonactive girls.
The use of contact lenses during water-polo play: A 20-year study of Japanese college players.
J Sports Sci. 2012 Nov 9.
Komori Y, Kobayashi D, Murase Y, Enomoto I, Takagi H, Kono I.
a Doshisha University , Faculty of Health & Sports Science , Kyotanabe , Japan.
This study investigated the extent of contact-lens use in Japanese college water-polo male players over 20 years (1991-2011, once every five years). Information about the use of contact lenses during play and the types of contact lens was obtained through a self-report questionnaire. The proportion of contact lens use among the players while playing water polo differed from 1991 to 2011 (?(2)(4) = 25.28, P < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.63). Fifty-four per cent of the players used contact lenses while playing in 1991 (P < 0.001); more than 74% in 1996; 89% in 2001; 84% in 2006; and 86% in 2011. While 96% of the contact lenses used by the players in 1991 were the soft type, 74%, 92%, 86%, and 88% of the contact lenses used in 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011, respectively, were the disposable type.
These findings indicated a high percentage of players were using contact lenses while playing water polo between 1996 and 2011. This could be because the majority of players used disposable lenses. The results suggest that increasing use of contact lenses by water-polo players is beneficial.
Oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis markers in elite female water polo athletes throughout a season.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Dec 29. pii: S0278-6915(12)00863-0. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.12.001
Varamenti EI, Kyparos A, Veskoukis AS, Bakou M, Kalaboka S, Jamurtas AZ, Koutedakis Y, Kouretas D.
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece.
Elite athletes undergo heavy training programs throughout the year. The aim of the present study was to evaluate blood biomarkers of redox status, oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis over the course of a competitive season in elite female water polo players. The biomarkers were evaluated in four distinct phases of an athletic season. It was found that the reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was significantly increased, whereas catalase activity was decreased in erythrocytes in phases 3 and 4 compared to phase 2. Plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was increased in phases 3 and 4 compared to phases 1 and 2, the concentration of protein carbonyls was increased in phase 4, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was decreased in phases 2 and 3. Plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was decreased in phases 3 and 4; interleukin-10 (IL-10) was increased in phase 4, whereas no change was observed for adiponectin and endoglin.
The findings of this study indicate that oxidative stress and inflammation varies over the season in elite female water polo athletes and this information might be used to apply remedies for optimizing athletic performance and accelerating training recovery.
Effects of two different training programs with same workload on throwing velocity by experienced water polo players.
Percept Mot Skills. 2012 Dec;115(3):895-902.
Marques MC, Liberal SM, Costa AM, van den Tillaar R, Sánchez-Medina L, Martins JC, Marinho DA.
Research Centre in Sports, Health, and Human Development University of Beira Interior, Portugal.
To investigate the effects of two different strength-training programs with the same workload (impulse) on throwing velocity in water polo, 30 water polo players (M age = 17.1 yr., SD = 4.9; M mass = 71.2 kg, SD = 14.7; M height = 1.75 m, SD = 0.09 m) were randomly divided in two groups based upon throwing performance with water polo ball. The medicine-ball training group performed 3 x 6 reps with a 3-kg medicine ball, while the combination training group completed 1 x 9 repetitions with the 3-kg medicine ball, followed by 3 x 14 repetitions with a water polo ball. Both groups trained eight weeks twice per week in addition to their regular water polo training. Throwing velocity was measured with a Doppler radar gun before and after the training period. Testing included throws with a water polo ball on land and in water, as well as with 1-kg and 3-kg medicine balls on land. Statistically significant increases were found in mean peak throwing velocity with the water polo, 1-kg, and 3-kg medicine balls after training. No differences between the groups were found, except in throwing velocity with water polo on land, with a statistically significantly larger increase for the combination training group (+7.6%) than the medicine-ball training group (+3.4%). These findings indicate that after training with the same workload (impulse), increases in throwing velocity in water polo are similar and suggesting workload may be a critical variable for training results.