Wetenschap en waterpolo
A multistage shuttle swim test to assess aerobic fitness in competitive water polo players.
J Sci Med Sport. 2000 Mar;3(1):55-64.
Rechichi C, Dawson B, Lawrence SR.
Western Australian Institute of Sport, Claremont, Australia.
A 10m multistage shuttle swim test (MSST) was designed for the assessment of aerobic fitness of competitive water polo players. Test-retest reliability was determined using a sample of 22 female and 22 male trained water polo players. An intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 (p>0.05) was calculated between the two test scores. The technical error of measurement for the test was 2.3 shuttles or 5.0%. The validity of the test was determined using a sample of 13 female and 12 male water polo players. A validation correlation coefficient of 0.88 resulted between the number of shuttles completed during the MSST and VO2max [litres/body surface area/ minute (l x BSA-1 x min-1)] measured during an incremental tethered swim test to exhaustion. A stepwise multiple regression revealed that VO2max (l x BSA-1 x min-1) accounted for approximately 78% of the MSST variance. It was concluded that the 10m multistage shuttle swim test is a reliable and valid field test of aerobic fitness for use with trained water polo players.
Pulsed Doppler tissue imaging in endurance athletes: relation between left ventricular preload and myocardial regional diastolic function.
Am J Cardiol. 2000 May 1;85(9):1131-6
Caso P, D'Andrea A, Galderisi M, Liccardo B, Severino S, De Simone L, Izzo A, D'Andrea L, Mininni N.
Divisione di Cardologia, Azienda Ospedaliera V. Monaldi, Universitŗ Federico II, Napoli, Italy.
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of endurance training on myocardial regional systolic and diastolic function by pulsed Doppler tissue imaging (DTI). Twenty male water polo players and 20 male control subjects underwent standard Doppler echocardiography and pulsed DTI, performed in apical views by placing a sample volume on left ventricular (LV) basal septal and inferior walls. Age, body surface area, and blood pressure were comparable between the 2 groups, with lower heart rate in athletes (p <0.001). They had significantly increased LV mass index (due to both higher wall thickness and end-diastolic diameter), greater endocardial fractional shortening, higher transmitral early/atrial (E/A) peak velocities ratio. In athletes, DTI analysis showed significantly prolonged myocardial deceleration time and greater myocardial E/A peak velocity ratio of septal and inferior walls, whereas myocardial early peak velocity was increased (p <0.01) only at the inferior wall. In the overall group, we found univariate relations of septal and inferior E/A peak velocity ratio and myocardial deceleration time with LV mass levels, and, in particular, with the sum of wall thickness. By separate multivariate analyses, however, these relations disappeared, being dependent on heart rate degree. Another association found between LV end-diastolic diameter and myocardial early diastolic wave peak velocity of the inferior wall (r = 0.68, p <0.0001) remained significant (standardized beta coefficient 0.60, p <0.00001), even after adjusting for heart rate, body surface area, age, and stroke volume (R(2) = 0.71, p <0.00001). In conclusion, DTI is a useful tool for detecting regional changes in myocardial function induced by training, because athletes present with an improvement in diastolic passive properties of myocardium. The higher early diastolic velocity of the inferior wall and its relation to increased preload may represent an indicator of aerobic training, allowing quantification of the degree of LV adaptation to endurance exercise.
Body composition measurement in highly trained male athletes. A comparison of three methods.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2000 Jun;40(2):178-83.
De Lorenzo A, Bertini I, Iacopino L, Pagliato E, Testolin C, Testolin G.
Human Physiology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the differences in the body composition estimate of highly trained male athletes by three different methods: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and skinfold thickness measurement (SFT).
METHODS: The study occurred during a non-intensive training period. The measurements were performed at the Human Physiology laboratory. Participants: forty-three male athletes (19 waterpolo, 9 judo, 15 karate) who exercised regularly at least three hours per day, six days per week. Measurements: DXA, BIA and SFT measurements of percentage fat mass (%FM) and the amount of fat-free mass (FFM) were performed. Statistical analyses: the different %FM estimates by the three methods were compared using a one-way ANOVA, with posthoc Bonferroni test when values were significantly different. The same test was used to compare FFM values. The coefficient of variation (CV%=100xSD/mean) was calculated for each methods. Methodological differences among the various methods were analysed with the method of Bland-Altman.
RESULTS: ANOVA test showed significant differences among the three methods. In particular, DXA significantly (p<0.001) overestimated %FM (12.4+/-4.1%) and underestimate FFM (67.0+/-6.9 kg) respect to SFT (7.8+/-0.9 % and 71.0+/-8.2 kg) and BIA (9.9+/-1.4% and 69.4+/-7.9 kg). Also Bland-Altman comparison among the estimates indicated wide differences between methods.
CONCLUSIONS: DXA provides different body composition estimates than those derived from skinfold thickness measurement and BIA, so that the methods should not be used interchangeably.