The physiology and biomechanics of competitive swimming
Clin Sports Med. 1999 Apr;18(2):267-85.
Novartis Consumer Health SA, Nyon Switzerland.
Fast swimming, either in the pool, in open water swimming, or in water polo and synchronized swimming, requires maximizing the efficiencies with which the human body can move through a liquid medium. A multitude of factors can affect the ability to swim fast as well as the final outcome. Physiology and biomechanics are the present tools used by sports scientists to determine which factors are important to fast swimming and, subsequently, to determine how the swimmer may maximize these factors to improve performance.
Competitive water polo. Upper extremity injuries
Clin Sports Med. 1999 Apr;18(2):305-12, vi
Colville JM, Markman BS.
Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, USA.
Water polo is a contact sport combining the skills of swimming, swim conditioning, throwing and, occasionally, the elements of wrestling and boxing. As such, the athletes frequently sustain upper extremity injuries involving the shoulder, the elbow, or the hand and fingers; moreover, injuries may result from either overuse or acute trauma. Successful treatment of these injuries requires an understanding of the peculiarities of the game and the likely mechanisms of injury, and the experience to properly recognize when they occur.
Injuries and considerations in masters aquatics sports.
Clin Sports Med. 1999 Apr;18(2):413-26, viii-ix
Department of Family Practice, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, USA.
Masters level athletes in all aquatic sports challenge healthcare professionals, providing them with many opportunities to test their sports medicine training. Along with sports-specific injuries, the medical professional must factor in physiologic differences due to aging and even the older athlete's basic motivation to pursue the sport--which differs greatly from that of younger swimmers. Organized Masters programs, complete with national and international championships, are growing in Masters Diving, Masters Synchronized Swimming, Masters Swimming, and Masters Water Polo.
Injuries in water polo
Clin Sports Med. 1999 Apr;18(2):313-9, vi
Canadian Knee Institute, Scarborough, Ontario, Canada.
Water polo is the only true "contact" sport of the aquatic disciplines. This article deals with the most common, aggressive, acute injuries, and the repetitive, overuse strains and sprains facing any athlete. Research to date demonstrates that the combination of swimming and throwing (without the benefit of a firm base of support) places a unique demand on the water polo athlete. The shoulder continues to be the most recognized and studied area of injury, with lacerations and traumatic fractures of the face and hand the next most prevalent. The premiere of women's water polo in the Sydney (Australia) 2000 Olympic games will draw more attention to this exciting, challenging sport.
A new predictive equation to calculate resting metabolic rate in athletes.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1999 Sep;39(3):213-9.
De Lorenzo A, Bertini I, Candeloro N, Piccinelli R, Innocente I, Brancati A.
University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.
BACKGROUND: The purposes of the present study were: 1) to examine the accuracy and precision of seven published equations for predicting resting metabolic rate (RMR) in male athletes and 2) to develop a population-specific equation.
Setting: The study occurred during a non-intensive training period. The measurements were performed at the Human Physiology laboratory. Participants: Fifty-one male athletes (22 waterpolo, 12 judo, 17 karate) who exercised regularly at least three hours per day.
MEASURES: RMR was measured (mRMR) using indirect calorimetry (ventilated hood system). Besides, mRMR was compared with values predicted (pRMR) using equations of FAO/WHO/UNU, Harris and Benedict, Mifflin et al., Owen et al., Cunningham, Robertson and Reid, Fleisch. Statistical analyses. mRMR was compared with pRMR by means of Student's paired "t" tests, linear regression analysis and the Bland-Altman test. Relationships between mRMR and the different predictive variables were evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficients. The best subset was used to develop the predictive equation for RMR.
RESULTS: mRMR was significantly underestimated by six of the seven equations in this sample of athletes. Only the Cunningham equation overestimated (+59 kcal/d) the actual RMR. Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement were wide (+/- 200-300 kcal/d) for all equations. RMR correlated best with body surface area (r = 0.88), body weight (r = 0.84) and height (r = 0.81). The best-fit equation for the entire data included both weight and height and it was given by: RMR (kcal/d) = -857 + 9.0 (Wt in kg) + 11.7 (Ht in cm) (R2 = 0.78; SEE = 91 kcal/d; 95% IC: -226, 228).
CONCLUSIONS: For an individual resting metabolic rate evaluation, the use of indirect calorimetry is recommended. In conditions where this technique cannot be used, our developed equation can predict the RMR of athletes better than any of the currently available prediction equations.