Plasma lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity in elite athletes from selected sports.
Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1988;58(3):262-5.
Tsopanakis C, Kotsarellis D, Tsopanakis A.
Department of Experimental Physiology, Athens University Medical School, Greece.
The activity of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and the plasma lipoprotein concentrations of elite athletes from 8 selected sports (volleyball, judo, sprinting, wrestling, throwing, cycling, water polo and tennis) were determined and compared with those of a sedentary control group. Plasma LCAT activity levels in the athletes were significantly 2.2-7.0 times higher than in the controls in most sports (p less than 0.01). Judo, sprinting, wrestling and throwing had comparable LCAT values while tennis, volleyball and cycling were considerably higher. HDL-C concentration was significantly higher than controls in the water polo (p less than 0.05), cycling and volleyball (p less than 0.01) groups. Percentage lipoprotein distribution in the athletes in all sports except tennis, throwing and wrestling were similar to the controls. The differences among groups in LCAT activity may be related to the effect of physical exercise and training adaptations to lipid metabolism. This may be of importance when judging the benefit of exercise for atherosclerosis protection.
The penalty throw in water polo: a cinematographic analysis.
J Sports Sci. 1988 Summer;6(2):103-14.
Elliott BC, Armour J.
Department of Human Movement and Recreation Studies, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Perth.
Three-dimensional (3-D) high-speed cinematography was used to record the penalty throw in water polo by six elite male (M) and six elite female (F) players. The direct linear transformation technique (DLT) was used in the 3-D space reconstruction from 2-D images recorded via laterally placed phase-locked cameras operating at 200 Hz. Five of the twelve subjects lifted the ball from underneath at the start of the throw whilst the remaining subjects opted for a rotation lift. As the ball was brought behind the head the females used very little hip and shoulder rotation compared to the male players so that four of the six female subjects were square on to the target at the rear point. At the completion of the backswing the wrist was flexed to a similar angle (M-162 degrees; F-158 degrees); the elbow angle showed significantly greater flexion for females (85 degrees) than males (107 degrees). During the forward swing, from rear point to release, the wrist joint of the female players flexed from a rear point angle of 158 degrees to 148 degrees at release. The wrist movement for male subjects was different from the females in that it flexed from 162 degrees to 147 degrees, 0.10 s prior to release and then extended to 159 degrees at palmar release before again flexing to 156 degrees at release. The amount of elbow extension during the forward swing was 48 degrees for both groups; however, the females actually released the ball with the forearm vertical (89 degrees) compared to the male forearm angle of 78 degrees. Maximum angular velocity of the wrist and elbow occurred at release for 9 of the 12 subjects. Both the wrist and elbow joints (F-148 degrees; M-156 degrees at wrist and F-126 degrees; M-148 degrees at elbow) demonstrated greater flexion at release in female subjects, compared with males. Maximum linear endpoint velocities for the forearm and hand segments occurred at ball release resulting in mean ball velocities of 19.1 m s-1 and 14.7 m s-1 for male and female subjects respectively.
Incidence of orodental trauma in sports: soccer, water polo and cycling.
Stomatol Mediterr. 1988 Oct-Dec;8(4):333-8.
Rizzo S, Melloni M.
The Authors analyze the incidence of the oral-dental traumas during the practise of three different sports: soccer, water polo and cycling, underlining the importance of the use of mouthguard as a specific oral protection.