Three-dimensional cinematographic analysis of water polo throwing in elite performers.
Am J Sports Med. 1985 Mar-Apr;13(2):95-8.
Whiting WC, Puffer JC, Finerman GA, Gregor RJ, Maletis GB.
Thirteen members of the United States Men's Water Polo Team were filmed using two synchronized cameras while shooting at a goal. Three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of the throwers' shoulder, elbow, wrist, and the ball were used to estimate elbow angle, elbow angular velocity, and ball velocity at release. Ball release velocities ranged from 14.5 to 25.8 m/sec, with peak elbow angular velocities averaging 1137 degrees/sec. Peak elbow angular velocity typically was reached just prior (x = 28 msec) to release as the elbow approached full extension.
Results are significant in establishing the efficacy of 3D techniques in evaluating throwing mechanics and may prove useful in: identifying characteristics of superior performers, assessing differences in throwing technique between injured and non-injured populations, and providing a kinematic data base for further studies of throwing kinetics and potential injury mechanisms.