Radio telemetry of the electrocardiogram, fitness tests, and oxygen uptake of water-polo players.
Can Med Assoc J. 1966 Aug 27;95(9):402-6.
Goodwin AB, Cumming GR.
During competitive water polo, heart rate in six subjects was monitored by cupped plastic and silver electrodes glued to the skin. Minimum rates during the game averaged 156 beats/min.; maximum rates averaged 186 beats/min. Mean maximum rate with bicycle exercise was 188 beats/min. Maximum oxygen (VO(2) max.) with bicycle exercise of 14 water-polo players was 53.3 ml./kg. Physical working capacity (PWC 170) was 1310 kilopond metres per square metre (k.p.m./sq.m.). PWC 170 correlated well with VO(2) max. in this small group (r = 0.77).Oxygen uptake was measured at three speeds of swimming and four levels of work on a bicycle ergometer. VO(2) max. of swimming was 88% of that obtained on bicycle exercise. The slope of the oxygen uptake vs. pulse rate curves was less for the swimming than for cycling, so that for a given oxygen uptake below the maximal, pulse rate was less in the swimmers. At near-maximal swimming, respiratory quotient was 0.95 compared with 1.27 for cycling, suggesting that the swimmers were underbreathing.